This 2002 image depicts a Nigerian woman drinking water directly from a local pond through a pipe filter. Similar to a straw, pipe filters are individual filtration devices, which allow people to filter their drinking water, in order to avoid contracting Guinea worm disease (GWD), while traveling or working in the field. To prevent possible infection, all drinking water must be filtered in endemic areas to remove the microscopic copepods, or water fleas that carry the infective Guinea worm larvae. In 2001, the Carter Center's Guinea Worm Eradication Program, and partners such as Health and Development International, the Hydro Polymers of Norsk Hydro, and Norwegian Church Aid, spearheaded the Sudan Pipe Filter Project. In only a few months, the project manufactured for distribution more than 9.3 million Guinea worm pipe filters to every man, woman, and child at risk for the disease in Sudan.