These Nigerian parents brought their children for smallpox vaccinations during the country’s 1968 Smallpox Eradication program. Though by 1967 25 million people had been vaccinated, large segments of the population were still being missed. Former Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Director, Dr. William Foege, therefore, developed the E2, or Eradication Escalation program that entailed an all-out attack to contain smallpox outbreaks. In 1980, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the global eradication of smallpox due to a worldwide vaccination campaign. The WHO then recommended that all countries cease vaccination.