|Description:||This right lateral view of a patient’s head and neck reveal the presence of what was determined to be a cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) infection, due to what was believed to be Leishmania mexicana, involving the right outer ear, or pinna, before the implementation of any treatment. Note the chronic inflammatory nodular, roughened appearance of the lesion, indicating its long-standing manifestation. See PHIL 18876, for an anterior view of this patient's condition before beginning treatment, and PHIL15063, for a lateral view of this patient’s ear after beginning treatment with sodium stibogluconate, or Pentostam®.|
Leishmaniasis includes two major diseases, cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), caused by more than 20 different leishmanial species.
CL, the most common form of the disease, causes skin ulcers. VL causes a severe systemic disease that is usually fatal without treatment. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL) is a rare but severe form affecting the nasal and oral mucosa.
Leishmaniasis is transmitted by the bite of small insects called sand flies. Many leishmanial species infect animals as well as humans. The distribution is world-wide, but 90% of visceral leishmaniasis cases occur in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil, while 90% of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occur in Afghanistan, Algeria, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia.